362 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. lives to save the eyes of a prince who was the glory of Persia. Persians still remember the saying attributed to the blinded Prince, " It is not my eyes which you have put out, but those of Persia." Rebellions in Persia, 1743-1744,—The repulse of Nadir in Daghestan and the insecurity felt owing to his increasing cruelty were the chief causes of three rebellions which broke out in Shirwan, in Pars, and at Astrabad. In Shirwan, a pretender named Sam, who claimed to be a son of Shah Husayn, raised the country and with the aid of the Lesghians defeated a body of two thousand troops. Nadir detached a force of twenty-five thousand men, which after much hard fighting drowned the rebellion in blood. The Pretender was taken prisoner and deprived of one eye, and then sent to Constantinople with the following message : " Nadir disdains to take the life of so despicable a wretch, although the c Grand Signior' has espoused his cause."* The trouble at Shiraz arose out of the failure of Taki Khan, the Governor of Fars, in certain expeditions in the Persian Gulf. Hearing that he was in consequence to be sent a prisoner to the camp, he revolted, but an army of eighteen thousand men captured Shiraz and crushed the rebellion with awful severity. Taki Khan was taken and deprived of one eye, and his relations were put to death. The revolt of the Kajars of Astrabad will be referred to when we come to the adventures of Hanway. Mohamed Husayn Khan, their chief, was defeated by a force of only fifteen hundred men, and the Astrabad province was ruined by the executions and destruction of property, of which Hanway gives a most graphic description. The Last Campaign against Turkey > 1743-1745.—The last campaign which Nadir fought against Turkey was due to the Sultan's refusal to recognize the Jafar sect, concerning which the following decision had been given by the religious leaders : " It is permitted to kill and to make prisoners of the people of Iran, and the new sect is contrary to the true belief." The Persian monarch had 1 This is Hanway's account. In the Jahangwka a different message is given.